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Fuel-cells have changed future energy storage.|
The principle of the fuel cell is known for a long time.
Sir William Grove explained the idea in 1839.
Fuel cells work with different kind of "fuel"
one possibility is Hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2)
Hydrogen can be produced
with Solar energy
or wave energy
or wind energy
= Renewable Energy!
With this use of clean energy
can be called clean!
Clean energy without pollution
Fuel cell powered tablet computer are shown for years. Fluid Computer Systems offers its Windows-7 based tablet computer powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, supplied by Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies. FCS want to launch the fuel cell powered tablet to the consumer market nest year.
B+S+B produces hydrogen and oxygen with the electricity produced by our windmill or with Solar panels
We will show you how you can save money and do good!
How does a fuel cell work?
Fuel cells are high efficiency energy converters generating electricity directly from hydrogen and oxygen. A polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) is the most used in the moment.
The core piece consists of an electrolyte membrane coated by catalytically active electrodes.
The membrane is conducting protons and separates the positive from the negative terminal.
Fuel Cells are versatile
There is a variety of possible applications:
Stationary electricity generation
Fuel cell plant
Advantages of fuel cells:
High efficiency by use of electricity and heat
Wide range of applications
CO2-neutral when operated on hydrogen generated by renewable energy.
A constant resource that is clean and does NOT destroy Nature.
Fuel cells are now on the market
You can buy them!
Fuel cells are electro-chemical conversion devices.
Fuel cells produce electricity from fuel on the anode side
+ an oxidant on the cathode side.
The oxidant reacts in the presence of an electrolyte.
Both parts also called reactants flow into the fuel cell.
The reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte stays in the fuel cell.
Fuel cells operate as long as the necessary oxidant flow is provided.
Fuel cells need an reactant from an external source - so you can call it a thermodynamically open system.
There are different fuel cells who act with different oxidants.
Hydrogen fuel cells use hydrogen and oxygen as its oxidant.
Hydrocarbon fuel cells use hydrocarbon and alcohol.
Also chemicals as chlorine and chlorine dioxide is used.
Fuel cells are not a new technology. There are many applications.
Cars with fuel cells are tested in many countries. They are fueled in two ways:
With pure hydrogen gas stored onboard in high-pressure tanks
With hydrogen-rich fuels - methanol, natural gas, gasoline.
With a “reformer” fuels can be converted into hydrogen gas.
Pure hydrogen fuel cells emit no pollutants, only water and heat.
Fuel cell vehicles achieve an energy efficiency of 40-45%
Internal combustion engine achieve 16% energy efficiency.
It is quite clear that fuel cell vehicles are much better for Earth's environment.
What makes wind blow around the Earth?
How is the energy from the Sun changed into moving air?
How much can fuel cells really being used to generate power?
How much power can they generate?
How many fuel cells would it take to power a whole city?
Annual global demand for methanol as a chemical feedstock or transportation fuel is around 50 million metric tonnes a year. Currently, the vast majority of this methanol is produced from natural gas. In China methanol gasified coal is used, a non-renewable energy source.
New developments are making renewable methanol available in industrial quantities, and fuel cell suppliers can capitalise on this as a green fuel for their products.
Biofuel producer BioMCN has modified a traditional methanol plant in the Netherlands to produce bio-methanol. The feedstock for this process is for the most part crude glycerine, formed as a residue of biodiesel production; however, any form of biomass that can be converted to syngas is usable. BioMCN is also investigating the use of biogas from vegetable residues as an alternative feedstock to natural gas. Renewable fuel is not necessarily the same as sustainable fuel and, recognising this, the company says it only uses feedstocks ‘derived from organic waste materials and crops other than those used for food consumption’. According to BioMCN’s Eelco Dekker, the company’s product emits 78% less carbon dioxide than conventional methanol on a life-cycle basis.
The plant produces 200,000 tonnes of bio-methanol annually (about 250 million litres). Although this is a small fraction of total global methanol demand, it is not insignificant and comfortably exceeds current demand from the fuel cell industry. To give an indication: Per Sune Koustrup of Nordic green, the company which is BioMCN’s sales representative for fuel cell applications, says that 200,000 tonnes translates to 8,000 truckloads per year, and puts the current methanol requirement of one of the major direct methanol fuel cell suppliers at less than one percent of this. As it stands then, the availability of bio-methanol is not a limiting factor to its use in fuel cells, and it is reasonable to assume that as markets grow, so will production capacity and competitiveness.
IdaTech became the first commercial fuel cell system supplier to offer bio-methanol as a fuelling option for its products. Its branded fuel, bio-HydroPlus, is a blend of deionised water and bio-methanol from BioMCN and can be used to fuel its ElectraGen ME back-up power systems. These integrate a fuel processor to produce hydrogen from the liquid fuel on site, which is then fed to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell as required.
There are other ways to produce renewable methanol, and there are a number of other renewable methanol producers around Earth. Some companies are working on the production of methanol from captured carbon dioxide emissions and hydrogen. Two years ago, a commercial-scale plant to produce methanol this way was commissioned in Iceland by Carbon Recycling International (CRI). Both the carbon dioxide feedstock and the renewable power for producing the hydrogen (by electrolysis) are supplied by the nearby geothermal power plant at Svartsengi. CRI says the plant produces around 5 million litres per year (~4,000 tonnes), which will supply about 2.5% of Icelandic gasoline consumption. The plant recycles 5,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.
But even renewable fuels must be used as efficiently as possible. Fuel cell technology will continue to commercialize.
Renewable energy use in a fuel cell is the best way to care for planet Earth.
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Learn how fuel cells work and why fuel cells are an interesting alternative..
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