BSB directory BSB Education BSB lectures BSB Mission Patient Earth Updated conservation  education on the Triassic period and the Cretaceous period changed the look of the Texas Hill Country very much. Conservation education about geology explains how Germany is affected by several mountain ranges who were pushed up by the African tectonic plate. German Nature Conservation education preserves Nature internationally providing updated science based facts, advice on global issues, on how to keep Nature beautiful
Logo of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, international charitable nonprofit organization providing nature conservation education to all countries on Earth Signature of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, international charitable nonprofit organization Earth's environment: All about geology: BSB research on geology is done by Peter and Marianne Bonenberger for decades: Conservation education online Geology: Life on earth depends on balanced earth plates. Billions of years earth balanced a natural process of moving plates. Mountains came up and erosion took them down again. Volcanoes rise and destroy land, build new islands. The science of geology explain how fragile Earth's balance is. Many schools teach not much about continental plates movements, but Geography and Geology knowledge is key to understand life on Earth, to see environmental problems. Spain's geology is very interesting, Africa pushing against Spain building mountains. Geological news of China. Since India is bumping into Asia, and the Himalayan s were pushed up and folded, people know about the geological forces on Earth. BSB research on geology is done by Peter and Marianne Bonenberger for decades: Conservation education online Geology: Life on earth depends on balanced earth plates. Billions of years earth balanced a natural process of moving plates. Mountains came up and erosion took them down again. Volcanoes rise and destroy land, build new islands. The science of geology explain how fragile Earth's balance is. BSB-research published in these news helps to keep Nature beautiful + to secure our future!
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Geology of the Texas Hill Country

The name for the science of Geology comes from the
Greek language: γη, ge, "Earth"
and λόγος, logos, "speech"
So Geology is "talking about Earth"
A nice definition of Geology is:
Geology is a science that deals with the history of the Earth as recorded in rocks

Geological forces

have determined the look of the Texas Hill Country
limestone layers are part of the geological history and can be seen in the Texas Hill Country on road cuts, quarries, and ravines and proof that geologic forces lifted up the Edwards plateau

There was a time when continents were together. When bumping into each other, mountain ranges were pushed up and folded. The area of today's southern United States had a huge mountain range, the Ouachita Mountains. They were pushed up by the African plate pushing against the North American plate. During the Triassic Period about 240 million years ago, the continental plates of North and South America and Africa were together and started drifting apart.
Texas and the southern part of the American plate was pushed up and folded by the African plate, the Ouachita Mountain range was built.

The name Cretaceous period comes from the Latin language for "chalky" and is usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide = chalk. At the beginning of the Cretaceous period, about 145 million years ago, the ancestral Gulf lapped upon the edge of the Texas continent.
The Bear Springs Blossom Nature preserve was covered by a warm shallow ocean about 120-125 million years ago.
Much later nearly all of Texas was covered by the sea. Multitudes of sea life deposited their calcium carbonate sediment the origin of limestone or "lime" shells and skeletons.
fossils found at Bear Springs Blossom Nature Preserve proof that the geologic theory about warm shallow oceans in the Texas Hill Country is true
The Cow Creek, Glen Rose, and Edwards were derived largely from skeletal calcium carbonate sediment.
The Glen Rose is the oldest of these limestone layers on our Nature preserve. In the subsurface under our preserve lies the Cow Creek limestone. The Glen Rose in Central Texas was deposited from about 113-108 million years ago and consists of layers of yellowish limestone, compacted clay, compacted silt, and soft lime mud. The "soft lime mud" usually is a mixture of lime mud and clay, which is called marl.
You can see the Glen Rose formation in stream valleys and road cuts throughout Bandera County.
The sea that deposited the Glen Rose progressively advanced onto the continent.
After the sea level was driven about to the middle of Texas, pure carbonate sediment was deposited in this area.
This deposition is now called the Edwards Group of formations, which overly the Glen Rose formation. The Edwards was deposited from about 108 to 100 million years ago. Remnants of the Edwards are on the high hills in Bandera County.

You all heard about the Balcone's fault zone.
The Balcones faulting occurred around 20 million years ago.
Conservation education Geography: Balcones Fault zone along the Texas Hill Country graphic by Geology Professor Bill Ward
Balcone's Fault Zones
Graphic by Professor Bill Ward, a member of
Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation

Far below the limestone layers, a thick salt layer was deposited by evaporating sea water.
The northwestern margin of the Gulf of Mexico subsiding caused enormous tension and movements far beneath the layer-cake surface. A huge part of Texas surface bulged, and a huge section was sliding on the thick salt layer downward toward the Gulf Basin.
Because of all the movement of this huge weight, the region was lifted up, building the Edwards Plateau.

The "hinge" of that uplift or downwarp runs parallel to Interstate 35 between Austin and San Antonio along what we call the Balcone's Escarpment. The Balcone's Fault Zone forms the eastern edge of the Edwards Plateau and the southern edge from San Antonio nearly to Del Rio.

The increased elevation of the Edwards Plateau area increased the gradient of streams, thereby increasing the ability of the streams to downcut and erode. Since that time natural processes of weathering and erosion have carved the limestone into hills and canyons that you see today in Bandera County. You can also say that the streams cut the canyons and what is left between the canyons are our Texas Hill Country hills.

Stone is hard and water is soft, but water is powerful and persistent and wears away stone. Water penetrates pores and cracks - when it freezes it expands, sometimes breaking the stones. Rainwater picks up carbon dioxide from the air and soil and forms a dilute solution of carbonic acid, which can easily dissolve limestone.
Caverns, sinkholes, and fantastically shaped pieces of limestone result.

See a list of strong earthquakes on Earth

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BSB fossil found in limestone layers at Bear Springs Blossom Nature preserve in Pipe Creek Texas, 40 miles northwest of San Antonio TX
Fossil seen in limestone wall at a road cut in the southern Texas Hill Country

Conservation education Geology online: earth's surface consists of many continental and oceanic plates moving all the time causing earthquakes
Earth's surface consists of many continental and oceanic plates moving all the time causing earthquake

Bear Springs Blossom Conservation education online: Geology, geography nature education online: map helps to see the bigger picture, help to understand Nature

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