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Earth's Oceans

oceans and seas have produced healthy seafood - but human- made chemicals and air pollution endanger our world oceans - our seas. ocean currents provide rich fisheries, oil spill contaminate sea food and can alter current flow
Healthy oceans are essential for Earth
What can we do to save our oceans and seas?
Oceans provide food for many humans

The †world †ocean

covers about 140 million sq mi
The major subdivisions of the world ocean are the
Pacific Ocean †~65 mill. sq mi
Atlantic Ocean ~35 mill. sq mi
Indian Ocean †††~28 mill. sq mi
Southern Ocean ~ 8 mill. sq mi
Arctic Ocean†††††~ 5 mill. sq mi

The name of the Greek God Okeanos -mentioned in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC was used. Before Europeans discovered other oceans, the term "ocean" was synonymous with the waters beyond Western Europe that we know now as the Atlantic. The Greeks believed it is a gigantic river encircling the Earth.


Do you know the deepest trench in the Atlantic Ocean?

UPDATE:
Newest studies show that Earth's oceans are storing 90% of the excess energy coming from the rapid rise of greenhouse gases. Warmer Earth's oceans will cause a shift in the Earth's climate. Dry areas will be moved, areas with abundant rainfall will change position. Earth's agriculture production is forced to adapt. Some countries will not be able to produce enough food for their citizens anymore, resulting in riots and famine.
Warmer water expands, gets more volume. Our research and calculation have shown that a rise of 7 feet in our ocean levels quite likely.
Our calculations are based on a warming of 2 F.
Where will the water come from?
A) The Greenland ice sheet will shrink by half and the Ant-Arctic ice by one third.
B) Water expands = more volume when it gets warmer!

What will it cost us?
ocean water gets warmer for decades resulting in higher ocean levels
Estimates start with 28 trillion US-Dollars, going up to 280 trillion.
Coast towns all over Earth will be affected, the cost for rebuilding harbors to fit to the higher sea level will be enormous.
water temperatures in ocean and seas are rising supporting an active hurricane season in the gulf of Mexico oil spill region. Storms can carry contaminated ocean water far inland - water pollution, destruction of marine habitat, nature, wildlife endangered because of the worst environmental disaster for the US
Orange / yellow shows abnormal warm water
Ocean water temperatures have changed
For 14 years BSB has informed its members about contaminated oceans:
Mercury + Antibiotics + Hormones + Perclorate + Pesticide
Fungicide + Lead + millions of tons of plastic and much more is found in Earth's oceans
BSB research: garbage and trash in the Pacific ocean change water temperatures, supporting an active hurricane season. Storms can carry contaminated ocean water far inland - water pollution, destruction of marine habitat, nature, wildlife endangered because of this international environmental disaster
Seawater / ocean water composition by mass:
A lot of trash ... and
Salinity ~3.5%

Oxygen 85.84%
Hydrogen 10.82%
Chlorine 1.94%
Sodium 1.08%
Magnesium 0.129%
Sulfur 0.092%
Calcium 0.04%
Potassium 0.04%
Bromine 0.0067%
Carbon 0.0029%
garbage and trash in the Pacific ocean kill marine life and change water temperatures, supporting hurricanes. Storms carry contaminated ocean water far inland resulting in water pollution, destruction of marine habitat, nature, wildlife. Life on Earth is endangered because of this international environmental disaster
Ocean Pollution is affecting all oceans and the rest of the Earth. Pollution in the ocean directly affects ocean organisms and indirectly affects human health and resources. Oil spills, toxic wastes, and dumping of other harmful materials are all major sources of pollution in the ocean.
Better Information is needed because if people know more about pollution in the ocean, then humans are able to reduce pollution.

Toxic wastes are poisonous materials that humans dump into the ocean. They harm many plants and animals in the ocean and have a huge impact on our health. Toxic waste is the most harmful form of pollution to sea life and humans. When toxic waste harms an organism, it can quickly be passed along the food chain and appears on the plate of the main predator on Earth: Humans.
In the food chain, one toxic organism gets eaten by another, larger animal, which gets eaten by another animal, and can end up being our seafood. Toxic waste gets into seas and oceans by the leaking of landfills, dumps, mines, and farms.
Farm chemicals and heavy metals from factories harm marine life and humans.

Fishermen know that the toxic chemicals in the ocean are killing much of the fish population. One of the most harmful chemicals in the ocean is lead.
Lead causes many health problems -it damages the brain, kidneys, and reproductive system.
Lead also causes birth defects. It has been shown to cause low IQ scores, slow growth, and hearing problems for small children.
When ocean water is contaminated seafood can be dangerous to human health. The effect on humans from seafood contamination may include birth defects and nervous system damage. Waste has been known to cause viral and bacterial diseases. This type of pollution can be stopped by watching what pollution we are letting into the ocean. People can decrease the amount of waste in the oceans by recycling instead of filling landfills. Plastic in the oceans kills millions of living beings.
BSB Conservation education online:watercycle or water cycle shows that water on Earth cannot be lost, it raises up out of the oceans, rains down in the mountains, is carried by creeks and river into the oceans. pesticide residue, fungicides, many human made chemicals harm out oceans
Be aware that Government data clearly prove that seafood = fish = crabs very often are
contaminated with various pesticide, lead, mercury residues.
coral reefs are dying - nature conservation is the only response to protect humans' future
The big coral reefs on the
East coast of Florida are dying
Human activities are to blame
the oil spill disaster will lead
to a faster decline,
the gulf stream transports oil to this area.
Coral reefs are a big part of
our ocean food source!
Earth's Nature is endangered
Read more about Earth ocean's coral reefs are essential for life on Earth - Earth corals produced oxygen, to stabilize climate, humans need oceans for food, coral reefs host 50% of sea life. Bear Springs Blossom's international nature conservation ocean protection plan provides information on corals, marine life, protecting earth oceans. Facts about coral reefs, coral composition, how to reduce ocean pollution to secure coral reefs, marine life
The Arctic Ocean is a busy place in the summeró whales migrating, walrus hauling out on the ice and more recently on land, Inupiat natives gathering food to sustain them through the coming harsh winter. This summer is going to be especially busy on another front with a number of decisions to be made by the Department of the Interior (DOI) and Environmental Protection Agency EPA concerning Big Oil's plans to drill for oil and the environmental consequences of these actions. DOI recently paved the way for drilling to progress in the Arctic's Chukchi Sea, even though the government has determined that significant scientific data are missing and has estimated that a spill there could release oil at a rate comparable to the Deepwater Horizon Gulf spill. Government estimates indicate a spill in the Chukchi could gush at a rate that is five times higher than what Shell Oil claims they are prepared to handle. At the Prudhoe Bay industrial complex, a haze hovers above the tundra in the summer. The decades-old drilling complex has air quality worse than the entire Washington, DC metro area! In 2009, Shell applied for air quality permits from the EPA for proposed drilling operations in the Arctic's Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. After feeling the tremendous pressure of Shell's team of lobbyists, the EPA issued lax permits for the expansion of their drilling operations, giving Shell a pass to pollute in the Arctic. These permits were declared unlawful twice within the last year, but Shell continues to increase its plans to drill, while skirting air quality laws. EPA will again review Shell's bloated and risky plans this summer. If there's one lesson we've learned from the Gulf spill, it's that Americans can no longer rely on the oil industry's shallow assurances. When it comes to the Arctic, if you can't clean up a spill, you can't drill. We're going to need your help to ensure Shell isn't allowed to move forward with its dirty and dangerous plans to drill in America's Arctic Ocean
Earth oceans get warmer, graphic shows the heat content rising Earth ocean get more volume. When water gets warmer its volume is increasing, leading to sea level rise


High carbon dioxide levels are one threat to our oceans and seas. Our oceans take a big amount of CO2 out of the air - all the sequestered CO2 has been kept from contributing to global warming. Now itís beginning to cause more problems than itís solving, increasing the acidity of the water by 30 percent. And that acidity is starting to dissolve seashells as the California coast, meaning tragic consequences for many organismsóand the millions more who count on sea life for food, including us.

The world's sea-grass meadows, a critical habitat for marine life and profit-maker for the fishing industry, are in decline due to coastal development and the losses are accelerating, according to a new study. Billed as the first comprehensive global assessment of sea-grass losses, the study found 58 percent of sea-grass meadows are declining and the rate of annual loss has accelerated from about 1 percent per year before 1940 to 7 percent per year since 1990.
Published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the study, based on more than 200 surveys and 1,800 observations dating back to 1879, found that sea-grasses are disappearing at rates similar to coral reefs and tropical rain-forests.
Sea-grasses live in shallow areas protected from large storm waves, and they are especially prevalent in bays and around river mouths. Scientists say sea-grass processes waste
dumped into the sea, helps stabilize ocean-bottom sediments in coastal areas to reduce erosion, provide nurseries for fish and shellfish and feeding grounds for larger marine creatures, including those that live in coral reefs.
But too much waste is dumped and sea grasses become damaged by polluted water from coastal development, decreasing water clarity, and by dredging and filling of meadows.
Global climate change is predicted to have deleterious effects on sea-grasses. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases are causing Earth to warm, leading to a host of environmental effects including warming and rising oceans.

Seagrass meadows are important food fisheries and host game-fish like tarpon, permit and bonefish.
A recent study estimated the annual economic value of sea-grass at
$~1,500 per acre.
Seagrass beds are economically and ecologically important as tropical forests or coral reefs are. It will cost us billions when our sea-grasses die.
About 30% of known seagrass meadows have disappeared since 1879. Globally, we lose a seagrass meadow the size of a soccer field every thirty minutes. Close to half of Earth's population lives close to oceans and seas depending on work / income and sea food.
In the early 20th century, heavy sea-grass losses were noted in North America and Europe, where the industrial revolution led to rapid coastal development. Today, population growth in the regions bordering the Pacific and Indian Oceans are leading to the heaviest losses of sea-grass. When in Florida, where treated sewage water is often dumped in the ocean, water managers changed their method of treating waste-water, failing sea-grasses rebounded partly.

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